Every beginner of sailing is dreaming about blue water and adventures. However, the base for safe sailing is some theory that is a must. The design of a classic sailing yacht consists of a hull and sailing weapons. Swimming guns are a set of all equipment designed to move a ship through the water with the help of wind. For whom sailboats include real sails, a mast, and a rigging.
The mast (mast tree) is the “skeleton” of the sails, which is designed to stretch them and transmit the force of motion to the hull of the yacht. The main part of the stem consists of stems. Despite the fact that the term “mast tree” is still used among sailors, in many modern yachts the masts are not made of wood, but of aluminum alloys, steel, carbon fiber composites.
The number of masts depends on the size of the yacht. The most common option is one basic mask. However, ocean mega yachts can have up to three masts. The size of the stems can also vary greatly depending on the size of the vessel itself. The Guinness Book of Records includes the Mirabella-5 yacht with a 90 m high carbon fiber mast.
The “guy” is special equipment associated with a standing rigging that provides galvanized iron cables. This equipment is designed to stretch and strengthen the masts, and the entire mast design provides extra strength. The thickness and number of cables depend on the size of the mast and the area of the sails. The “screws” are the so-called “running” rigging. This part got its name because, unlike the “guy”, this system is not fixed. The bolts are used to control the sails and mast tree. They are made of synthetic or natural materials.
The sail is the main part of a sailing yacht. Today, there are two main types of sails used in yachts: snails and direct sailing. The choice of one or another option depends on several conditions: the size of the yacht and its operating conditions.
Direct sailing is commonly used on large multilayer ocean yachts. Occasionally used for yachts stylized like old sailing ships – brigades and brigantines. The direct sail is made in the form of a trapezoid, they are mounted on a horizontal mast tree called shafts, usually in several stages. Among the disadvantages of direct sailing weapons should be mentioned his good work only with the tail and partly with the crosswind (no more than 60-70 degrees).
For sports and pleasure yachts, the sail is only on one side of the mast, usually at the rear. The shape of the material can be triangular or quadrangular. Since it is such small vessels that make up the bulk of the world’s yacht fleet, then diagonal sailing is most common. Its main advantage is the ability to move when there is a headwind.
In some cases, you can meet the common use of sails. For example, cruise yachts on which the main type of sailing weapon is a sloping sail can set a direct sail in light winds. This is due to the better efficiency of direct sails on passing courses than diagonal ones and therefore a significant increase in speed.